a. Scientific evidence of biological evolution uses information from geographical, geological, physical, chemical and mathematical applications.
b. Molecular, morphological and genetic information of existing and extinct organisms add to our understanding of evolution.
Evidence of student learning is a demonstrated understanding of each of the following:
1. Fossils can be dated by a variety of methods that provide
evidence for evolution. These include the age of the rocks
where a fossil is found, the rate of decay of isotopes including
carbon-14, the relationships within phylogenetic trees, and the
mathematical calculations that take into account information from chemical properties and/or geographical data.
✘✘ The details of these methods are beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common ancestry. Vestigial structures are remnants of functional structures, which can be compared to fossils and provide evidence for evolution.
3. Biochemical and genetic similarities, in particular DNA nucleotide and protein sequences, provide evidence for evolution and ancestry.
LO 1.9 The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data from many scientific disciplines that support biological evolution.
[See SP 5.3]
LO 1.10 The student is able to refine evidence based on data from many scientific disciplines that support biological evolution. [See SP 5.2]
LO 1.11 The student is able to design a plan to answer scientific questions regarding how organisms have changed over time using information from morphology, biochemistry and geology. [See SP 4.2]
LO 1.12 The student is able to connect scientific evidence from many scientific disciplines to support the modern concept of evolution. [See SP 7.1]
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism
g. Conditions for a population or an allele to be in Hardy-Weinberg
equilibrium are: (1) a large population size, (2) absence of
migration, (3) no net mutations, (4) random mating and (5) absence
of selection. These conditions are seldom met.
h. Mathematical approaches are used to calculate changes in allele
frequency, providing evidence for the occurrence of evolution in a
To foster student understanding of this concept, instructors can
choose an illustrative example such as:
• Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population
• Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation
LO 1.13 The student is able to construct and/or justify mathematical models, diagrams or simulations that represent processes of biological evolution. [See SP 1.1, 2.1]
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes.
a. Genetic drift is a nonselective process occurring in small populations.
b. Reduction of genetic variation within a given population can
increase the differences between populations of the same species.
Overview of Hardy-Weinberg equation and assumptions for a non evolving population
Lab 8 (from the "vintage" labs)
Complete exercise 8A- and Cases 1-IV, H/W problems 1-6 pages 96-97.
Case study: Tree thinking- due April 4th